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Land Clearance – Ultimate Guide

Table of Contents

Land clearance, a critical yet often overlooked aspect of construction and development projects, is the focus of this comprehensive guide. Whether it’s preparing for a new housing estate or clearing the way for infrastructure improvements, land clearance is an intricate process that requires careful planning and execution. This guide will delve into the multifaceted stages of land clearance, from initial site assessment to final soil grading and levelling.

We’ll explore the myriad regulations and standards governing this practice in the UK, consider environmental implications, identify key professionals involved in the process, answer frequently asked questions and highlight related services. So whether you’re a seasoned developer or just curious about what goes on behind those construction barriers, read on for an enlightening journey through the world of land clearance.

Process of Land Clearance

Land clearance, also known as site clearance or land clearing, is a comprehensive process that involves preparing a piece of land for construction or other development. It’s not just about bulldozing everything in sight; it’s a meticulous procedure that requires careful planning and execution. Here are the key steps involved:

Site Assessment

Before any actual work begins, a thorough site assessment is necessary. This involves surveying the land to identify its current state, potential hazards, and any existing structures or vegetation that need to be removed. The assessment will also consider factors such as soil quality and topography.

AspectDescriptionConsiderationsRelevant UK Regulations and Guidelines
TopographyThe physical layout and features of the land.Elevation, slopes, natural formations, drainage patterns, etc.Local planning policies
Soil TypeAnalysis of the soil present on the site to determine its suitability for development.Soil composition, erosion potential, load-bearing capacity, potential for compaction or subsidence, contamination, etc.DEFRA Soil Guidelines
VegetationExamination of the existing flora and fauna within the site.Types of vegetation, endangered species, potential for replanting or transplanting, ecological balance, etc.Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981
Water ResourcesIdentification and evaluation of water bodies and water tables.Surface water, groundwater, flood risk, drainage, potential for water pollution, etc.Water Resources Act 1991
Cultural ResourcesExamination of historical or culturally significant aspects of the land.Historical landmarks, archaeological sites, listed buildings, cultural heritage, etc.Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979
InfrastructureEvaluation of existing and required infrastructure.Roads, utilities (electricity, water, gas), accessibility, proximity to public transportation, etc.National Planning Policy Framework
Zoning and Land UseAssessment of the site’s zoning and the potential for land use change.Current zoning classification, permitted land uses, possibility for rezoning, restrictions, neighbouring land uses, etc.Town and Country Planning Act 1990
Geotechnical AnalysisAssessment of the geological characteristics and conditions of the site.Rock types, faults, seismic activity, stability of slopes, etc.British Standards in Geotechnical Engineering
Environmental ImpactAssessment of potential environmental effects of the land clearance.Air quality, noise pollution, potential harm to wildlife, waste management, energy consumption, long-term sustainability, etc.Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations 2017
Legal and ComplianceReview of legal requirements and compliance with relevant regulations.Ownership, easements, property boundaries, permitting, coordination with local authorities, compliance with UK and EU regulations, etc.Various UK and EU laws and regulations
Health and SafetyAnalysis of potential risks and safety measures associated with the clearance operation.Worker safety, public safety, hazardous materials, equipment safety, emergency response planning, etc.Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
Economic FeasibilityEvaluation of the economic viability of the land clearance project.Costs of clearance, potential revenues from land use, potential incentives or grants, impact on property values, etc.HM Treasury’s Green Book
Community ConcernsEngagement with community stakeholders to understand and address any concerns related to the land clearance.Public opinions, potential objections, community benefits, communication and engagement strategy, etc.Local government community engagement guidelines
Climate ConsiderationsAssessment of climate factors that may affect the project or be affected by it.Weather patterns, climatic zones, potential for extreme weather events, impacts of clearance on local microclimate, adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change, etc.Climate Change Act 2008

Planning and Permission

Once the initial assessment is complete, planning for the clearance can begin. This includes creating detailed plans for how the work will be carried out, considering factors like waste management and environmental impact. It’s also at this stage where you’ll need to secure planning permission from local authorities.

Hazard Identification

Identifying potential hazards is crucial in ensuring safety during the land clearance process. These could include contamination from hazardous materials or unstable structures that pose a risk during demolition.

HazardDescriptionMitigation StrategiesRelevant UK Regulations and Guidelines
Unstable SoilSoil that may collapse or shift during clearance.Soil testing, reinforcement, proper grading, employing suitable machinery.DEFRA Soil Guidelines, Building Regulations
Wildlife DisplacementDisturbance or harm to wildlife habitats.Wildlife surveys, proper timing to avoid breeding seasons, rehoming or protection strategies, maintaining natural buffers.Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981
Water ContaminationPollution of nearby water bodies from runoff.Erosion control measures, proper disposal of waste, containment structures, regular monitoring.Water Resources Act 1991
Air PollutionDust and emissions from machinery.Dust suppression methods, using low-emission machinery, proper maintenance of equipment, wearing protective equipment.Clean Air Act 1993
Noise PollutionNoise generated from machinery and operations.Proper scheduling to minimize impact, noise barriers, using low-noise equipment, adherence to local noise regulations.Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
Hazardous MaterialsExposure to or release of hazardous materials like chemicals or fuels.Proper storage and handling, spill prevention and response plans, personal protective equipment, training.Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002
Injury from MachineryPotential injuries from operating or being near heavy machinery.Proper training, safety protocols, personal protective equipment, regular maintenance and inspection.Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
Overhead and Underground UtilitiesInteraction with existing overhead or underground utilities such as electricity and gas lines.Utility mapping, safe digging practices, coordination with utility companies, proper marking and identification.HSE Guidelines
Archaeological ImpactDamage to unknown archaeological or cultural sites.Archaeological surveys, coordination with local heritage bodies, preservation and careful handling of discovered artifacts.Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979
Flooding RiskRisk of flooding during or after land clearance, particularly in flood-prone areas.Flood risk assessment, proper drainage planning, adherence to local floodplain regulations, flood barriers.Flood and Water Management Act 2010
Tree and Vegetation DamageDamage to trees and vegetation that are intended to be preserved.Tree protection measures, clear marking, proper training, following arboricultural standards.Tree Preservation Orders, British Standards for Tree Work
Climate ImpactContribution to climate change through emissions and alteration of the natural landscape.Emission reduction strategies, sustainable land management practices, carbon offsetting, adherence to climate-related policies.Climate Change Act 2008

Demolition and Removal

If there are existing structures on the site, these will need to be demolished and removed before further work can take place. Debris removal is an essential part of this step – all rubble must be cleared away safely.

Downton - before
During site clearance

Soil Grading and Levelling

Soil grading involves leveling and shaping the land surface to prepare it for construction. Depending on what’s planned for the site, this might involve excavation (digging up soil) or filling in areas to create a flat surface.

Recycling and Disposal

Finally, all waste material generated during the clearance process needs to be disposed of responsibly. Where possible, materials should be recycled – this not only reduces environmental impact but can also cut down on disposal costs.

Generation of Non-Hazardous Construction & Demolition Waste Over Time
Recovery of Non-Hazardous Construction & Demolition Waste Over Time

Source: https://www.data.gov.uk/dataset/882186e7-97b0-4ad0-b253-e28607252f42/uk-statistics-on-waste

Regulations and Standards

The process of land clearance is not just about bulldozers and excavators. It’s also about adhering to a complex web of regulations and standards designed to ensure safety, protect the environment, and maintain high-quality workmanship. These guidelines are set by various bodies such as the Construction Industry Council (CIC) and the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS). Let’s delve into some key regulations that govern land clearance in the UK.

The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (CDM)

The CDM regulations play a pivotal role in ensuring health, safety, and welfare within construction projects. They require that risks are managed from start to finish, including during land clearance. Site preparation must be planned meticulously with due consideration for potential hazards. This includes identifying any hazardous materials on site such as asbestos or contaminated soil.

The Control of Asbestos Regulations

Asbestos was widely used in buildings until its ban in 1999 due to its harmful effects on health. If you’re clearing a site with older structures, it’s crucial to follow these regulations closely. They stipulate that any asbestos present must be identified and safely removed by licensed professionals before demolition can proceed.

Professional wearing protective gear while removing asbestos

The Environmental Protection Act

This act lays out duties for waste management during land clearance activities. For instance, it requires proper disposal of waste materials to prevent harm to human health or pollution of the environment. It also mandates recycling wherever possible.

The Wildlife and Countryside Act

Land clearance isn’t just about buildings and soil; it’s also about wildlife habitats that may exist on the site. This act protects certain species from being disturbed or harmed during development activities. Therefore, before starting your project, you need to conduct an ecological survey to identify any protected species living on your site.

Scientific NameCommon NameConservation StatusLegal Protection StatusThreats
Sciurus vulgarisRed SquirrelLeast ConcernWildlife and Countryside Act 1981Habitat loss, competition with Grey Squirrels
Meles melesEuropean BadgerLeast ConcernProtection of Badgers Act 1992Road deaths, illegal persecution, habitat destruction
Erinaceus europaeusHedgehogLeast ConcernWildlife and Countryside Act 1981Habitat loss, road deaths
Rana temporariaCommon FrogLeast ConcernWildlife and Countryside Act 1981Habitat loss, pollution
Lacerta viviparaCommon LizardLeast ConcernWildlife and Countryside Act 1981Habitat loss, predation
Pipistrellus pipistrellusCommon PipistrelleLeast ConcernWildlife and Countryside Act 1981Habitat loss, use of pesticides
Apus apusCommon SwiftLeast ConcernWildlife and Countryside Act 1981Habitat loss, decline in food availability
Bufo bufoCommon ToadLeast ConcernWildlife and Countryside Act 1981Habitat loss, road deaths
Capreolus capreolusRoe DeerLeast ConcernDeer Act 1991Road accidents, habitat fragmentation

In conclusion, complying with these regulations is not only legally required but also ensures responsible practices during land clearance activities. By understanding these laws thoroughly, you can plan your project effectively while minimising environmental impact.

Environmental Considerations

When it comes to land clearance, environmental considerations are paramount. The process of clearing a site for construction or development can have significant impacts on the local environment, and these must be carefully managed to minimise harm.

Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs)

An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a crucial part of any land clearance project. This comprehensive study evaluates the potential effects of the proposed development on the environment, including its impact on wildlife, vegetation, water resources, air quality and noise levels.

The EIA should be carried out by an experienced environmental consultant who can identify potential issues and suggest mitigation measures. It’s important to note that in many cases, an EIA is not just good practice – it’s a legal requirement under UK law.

Protection for Species

Land clearance can pose a threat to local wildlife species, particularly if their habitats are disturbed or destroyed. In the UK, certain species are protected by law under The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. This means that developers must take steps to avoid harming these species or damaging their habitats.

Before starting any land clearance work, a thorough ecological survey should be conducted to identify any protected species that may be present on the site. If such species are found, appropriate measures must be taken to protect them.

Pollution Prevention

During land clearance activities such as demolition and excavation, there’s a risk of pollution from dust emissions and runoff from disturbed soil. These pollutants can harm local ecosystems and pose health risks for nearby residents.

To prevent this kind of pollution, developers should implement dust control measures like using water sprays during demolition works. They should also install silt fences or other barriers around the site perimeter to contain runoff.

Method NameDescriptionPollutants TargetedEfficiencyImplementation CostEnvironmental Impact
Soil WashingRemoving hazardous waste from soilsHeavy Metals, ChemicalsMedium£15,000Medium
Sedimentation TanksSettling of particles in waterSediments, Some ChemicalsMedium£8,000Low
PhytoremediationUsing plants to absorb contaminants from soilOrganic PollutantsLow£4,000Very Low
Silt FencingPhysical barriers to control erosionDust, SedimentsMedium£2,000Low
Electrostatic PrecipitatorsRemoval of particles from exhaust gasesDust, Airborne ParticlesHigh£20,000Medium
Constructed WetlandsNatural water purification systemsWater PollutantsMedium£7,000Low
MulchingCovering soil to reduce erosion & runoffErosion ControlLow£1,000Low
Solar DegradationUsing sunlight to break down pollutantsVarious ChemicalsMedium£6,000Low
Wind BreaksBarriers to control wind and dust spreadDust ControlLow£3,000Low
Thermal DesorptionUsing heat to remove contaminants from soilVolatile Organic CompoundsHigh£25,000Medium
Bioreactor LandfillsControlled breakdown of organic wasteOrganic WasteHigh£10,000Medium
Vegetative CoverPlanting vegetation to prevent erosionErosion ControlLow£4,000Very Low
Vapor Recovery SystemsCapturing vapors to prevent air pollutionVolatile Organic CompoundsHigh£12,000Low
Microbial BiodegradationUsing microbes to break down pollutantsOrganic PollutantsMedium£7,000Medium
Sediment BasinsContainment basins for sediment controlSedimentsMedium£5,000Low
Ozone OxidationUsing ozone to oxidize and break down pollutantsVarious ChemicalsHigh£18,000Medium
NanofiltrationUsing nanotechnology for water purificationHeavy Metals, Water PollutantsHigh£20,000Medium
Rainwater HarvestingCollecting and storing rainwaterWater ManagementLow£3,000Low
Noise BarriersPhysical barriers to reduce noise pollutionNoise ReductionMedium£6,000Low
Fuel-efficient MachineryUsing fuel-efficient vehicles & machineryAir PollutantsMediumVariesLow

Habitat Restoration

Once land clearance has been completed and construction is underway or finished, attention turns towards habitat restoration. This involves reinstating vegetation cover and creating new habitats for wildlife where possible.

Habitat restoration not only helps offset some of the environmental impacts caused by land clearance but also contributes positively towards biodiversity conservation efforts in general.

In conclusion: while land clearance is often necessary for development projects, it’s essential that we consider its environmental implications carefully. By conducting thorough EIAs; protecting endangered species; preventing pollution; and restoring habitats post-construction; we can ensure our developments proceed responsibly without causing undue harm to our precious natural world.

Professionals Involved in Land Clearance

Land clearance is a multifaceted process that requires the expertise of various professionals. Each professional plays a crucial role in ensuring that the land clearance process is conducted safely, efficiently, and within the confines of environmental regulations. Here are some of the key professionals involved:

Surveyors

Surveyors play an integral role in land clearance. They are responsible for assessing the site and providing accurate measurements and descriptions of the land. This information is vital for planning purposes and to ensure that any structures or features on the site are accurately accounted for.

A surveyor’s work can include topographical surveys to map out physical features, boundary surveys to establish property lines, and geotechnical surveys to understand soil conditions. Their findings form a critical part of site assessment reports which guide subsequent stages of land clearance.

Environmental Consultants

Environmental consultants provide expert advice on environmental considerations during land clearance. They conduct Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) to evaluate potential environmental effects caused by proposed activities.

Their responsibilities also include identifying protected species habitats, advising on pollution prevention measures, and guiding habitat restoration efforts post-clearance. By doing so, they help ensure compliance with environmental laws such as The Wildlife and Countryside Act and The Environmental Protection Act.

Demolition Contractors

Demolition contractors are tasked with removing existing structures from a site safely and efficiently. This involves careful planning to minimise risks associated with hazardous materials like asbestos, which is governed by The Control of Asbestos Regulations.

They use specialised equipment for demolition tasks and must adhere strictly to safety standards set out by bodies like The Health and Safety Executive (HSE). After demolition, they oversee debris removal – an essential step towards preparing the site for further development.

Landscaping Specialists

Once demolition contractors have cleared away structures and debris, landscaping specialists come into play. Their role involves soil grading – levelling off the ground surface – which prepares it for construction or other uses.

Landscaping specialists may also be involved in reclamation projects where disturbed lands need returning to stable conditions after clearance activities. This includes restoring topsoil layers stripped during excavation processes or implementing erosion control measures on sloping sites.

In conclusion, successful land clearance relies heavily on these professionals’ collective expertise working harmoniously together throughout each stage – from initial site assessment through final landscaping touches.

FAQs

Here are some frequently asked questions about land clearance:

  1. What is the difference between land clearance and deforestation?
    While both involve the removal of vegetation, deforestation typically refers to the large-scale removal of trees in forested areas, often for agricultural or logging purposes. Land clearance, on the other hand, is a broader term that includes not only vegetation removal but also demolition of structures and soil grading in preparation for construction or development.
  2. Do I need permission for land clearance?
    Yes, you generally need planning permission from your local council before starting a land clearance project. This ensures that your project complies with local regulations and environmental standards.
  3. How long does land clearance take?
    The duration of a land clearance project can vary widely depending on factors such as the size of the site, the amount and type of vegetation or structures present, and weather conditions.
  4. Can I do my own land clearance?
    While it’s possible to undertake small-scale clearing tasks yourself, larger projects should be left to professionals due to safety considerations and regulatory requirements.
  5. What happens to waste materials during land clearance?
    Waste materials from demolition are usually sorted for recycling where possible. Non-recyclable waste must be disposed of at approved landfill sites following environmental regulations.

Land Clearance is often part of a suite of services offered by construction companies or specialist contractors. These may include:

  • Shrub Clearance: Scrub clearance is returning areas of land covered with scrub vegetation.
  • Site Preparation: Preparing a site for construction after it has been cleared.
  • Excavation: Digging foundations or trenches as part of construction work.
  • Ground Clearing: Removing surface-level obstacles like rocks or tree stumps.
  • Site Remediation: Cleaning up contaminated sites before or after clearing.
  • Right-of-way Clearing: Creating paths for roads, pipelines, utilities etc.

Useful Resources

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/297676/scho0309bpqm-e-e.pdf
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1981/69
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1991/57/contents
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1979/46
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework–2
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1990/8/contents
https://www.bsigroup.com/en-GB/our-services/standards-subscription-services/eurocodes-plus/Take-a-Tour-Page/Geotechnical-Engineers-BSI-Group/
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2017/571/contents/made
https://www.hse.gov.uk/legislation/hswa.htm
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-green-book-appraisal-and-evaluation-in-central-governent/the-green-book-2020
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2008/27/contents
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1991/57/contents
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1993/11/contents
https://www.hse.gov.uk/noise/regulations.htm
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2002/2677/regulation/7/made
https://www.hse.gov.uk/legislation/hswa.htm
https://www.hse.gov.uk/guidance/index.htm
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1979/46
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/29/contents
https://www.gov.uk/guidance/tree-preservation-orders-and-trees-in-conservation-areas
https://www.hse.gov.uk/treework/index.htm
https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1991/54/contents

RegionAmphibiansInsectsFishPlants
North East EnglandGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water BeetleNorthern Pike, RuddCommon Reed, Water Lilies, Water Crowfoot, Yellow Water Lily, Marsh Marigold, Water Plantain, Water Forget-me-not, Purple Loosestrife, Marsh Pennywort, Bogbean, Brooklime, Water Speedwell
North West EnglandGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water BeetleNorthern Pike, RuddCommon Reed, Water Lilies, Water Crowfoot, Yellow Water Lily, Marsh Marigold, Water Plantain, Water Forget-me-not, Purple Loosestrife, Marsh Pennywort, Bogbean, Brooklime
Yorkshire and the HumberGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyTench, Roach, BreamCommon Reed, Water Lilies, Water Crowfoot, Yellow Water Lily, Marsh Marigold, Water Plantain, Water Forget-me-not, Purple Loosestrife, Marsh Pennywort, Bogbean, Brooklime, Water Speedwell
East MidlandsGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyTench, Roach, BreamWater Crowfoot, Yellow Water Lily, Water Plantain, Marsh Pennywort, Purple Loosestrife, Bogbean, Brooklime, Greater Spearwort, Water Avens, Marsh Woundwort
West MidlandsGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyCommon Carp, Mirror Carp, Tench, Roach, BreamCommon Reed, Water Lilies, Yellow Flag Iris, Great Willowherb, Marsh Marigold, Water Plantain, Water Forget-me-not, Purple Loosestrife, Marsh Pennywort, Bogbean, Brooklime
East of EnglandGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyRudd, Common Bream, Roach, PerchCommon Reed, Yellow Water Lily, Water Crowfoot, Water Mint, Brooklime, Bogbean, Water Figwort, Greater Spearwort, Lesser Spearwort
LondonGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyCarp, Rudd, Perch, RoachCommon Reed, Water Lilies, Yellow Flag Iris, Water Forget-me-not, Great Willowherb, Brook
South East EnglandGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyCommon Carp, Rudd, Perch, Roach, Tench, BreamCommon Reed, Yellow Water Lily, Water Crowfoot, Water Forget-me-not, Greater Spearwort, Lesser Spearwort, Brooklime, Water Figwort, Fool’s Watercress, Mare’s-tail, Marsh Marigold, Purple Loosestrife
South West EnglandGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyTench, Perch, Roach, BreamCommon Reed, Yellow Water Lily, Water Crowfoot, Water Forget-me-not, Greater Spearwort, Lesser Spearwort, Brooklime, Water Figwort, Fool’s Watercress, Mare’s-tail, Marsh Marigold, Purple Loosestrife, Yellow Flag Iris
WalesGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyTench, Bream, Brown Trout, PikeCommon Reed, Yellow Water Lily, Water Crowfoot, Water Forget-me-not, Greater Spearwort, Lesser Spearwort, Brooklime, Water Figwort, Fool’s Watercress, Mare’s-tail, Marsh Marigold, Purple Loosestrife, Yellow Flag Iris
ScotlandGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyBrown Trout, Pike, Perch, RoachBogbean, Brooklime, Bulrush, Marsh Marigold, Water Crowfoot, Yellow Water Lily, Yellow Flag Iris, Purple Loosestrife
Northern IrelandGreat Crested Newt, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyBrown Trout, Pike, RoachBogbean, Brooklime, Bulrush, Marsh Marigold, Water Crowfoot, Yellow Water Lily, Yellow Flag Iris, Purple Loosestrife, Greater Spearwort
Isle of ManCommon Frog, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyBrown Trout, Pike, Perch, RoachWater Crowfoot, Yellow Water Lily, Greater Spearwort, Lesser Spearwort, Marsh Marigold, Purple Loosestrife
Channel IslandsCommon Frog, Agile FrogWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyBrown Trout, Pike, Perch, RoachWater Crowfoot, Yellow Water Lily, Marsh Marigold, Purple Loosestrife
IrelandNatterjack Toad, Common Frog, Smooth Newt, Common ToadWater Boatman, Water Scorpion, Pond Skater, Whirligig Beetle, Water Stick Insect, Water Beetle, Damselfly, DragonflyBrown Trout, Pike, Perch, RoachBogbean, Brooklime, Bulrush, Marsh Marigold, Water Crowfoot, Yellow Water Lily, Yellow Flag Iris, Purple Loosestrife, Greater Spearwort